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Multi-Stage Contracts#

Multi-stage contracts refer to smart contracts that operate on a stateful level. Because Ergo uses the UTXO model (first seen in Bitcoin), it is possible to process parallelized actions on top of smart contracts. Multi-Stage Contracts provide an extension to Bitcoin’s UTXO model with on-chain computations. It’s a complex design that aims for infinite scalability; therefore, it creates more space to build complex solutions that introduce the concept of UTXO chains.

We describe how to emulate persistent storage in UTXO based systems using a technique called transaction trees. This allows us to emulate the functionality of account-based systems such as Ethereum without the overhead of accounts.


  • Reversible Address with anti-theft features
  • A Rock Paper Scissors game with provable fairness
  • A full featured ICO that accepts funding in ERGs

Tutorials & Guides#

References & Resources#