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Ergo Platform Blockchain Integration Guide#

This guide provides developers with the necessary information to integrate with the Ergo Blockchain Platform. For suggestions to improve this guide, please reach out to us at [email protected] or join our #development channel on Discord.

Key Features#

  • Ergo's transactions consist of multiple inputs and outputs, similar to Bitcoin. Unspent outputs, known as single-use entities, are used once. Although built from the ground up, Ergo's scripts and transaction formats differ from Bitcoin's. For an in-depth understanding, refer to the Ergo 'Box' model.
  • Ergo incorporates standard scripts, associated with P2PK addresses, much like Bitcoin. Explore more about the address scheme here.
  • An Ergo UTXO box utilizes registers to store arbitrary values, such as native tokens, rather than a single amount (like BTC). Each box holds an ERG amount and may include {tokenid, token amount} pairs, adhering to the UTXO model.
  • Ergo's built-in wallet API caters to most use cases. The API employs a Swagger interface and operates on by default in the mainnet (9052 on the testnet).
  • The precision of each transaction on the Ergo platform is up to \(10^{-9}\) ERG. This means that transactions can be made with a precision of up to 0.000000001 ERG.
  • The average interval time of each block on the Ergo blockchain is approximately 2 minutes.



For the best performance, we advise you to run your own node. If that's not feasible, you can use a public node available at For backup options, feel free to reach out to us at [email protected] or join our group chat. You can also find a dynamic list of public nodes at

If you choose to run a public node, you can access the web interface at Please note that the port switches to 9052 on the testnet. For guidance on getting started with the testnet, please refer to this page.

Running an Ergo node requires a certain amount of disk space, which depends on factors like the size of the blockchain and the number of transactions. We recommend having at least 100 GB of disk space to ensure seamless operation.

For a more efficient setup, you can bootstrap a pruned node using a verified UTXO set snapshot and NiPoPoWs.

Exchange Specific Node Settings#

For exchange nodes, consider implementing the following non-default wallet settings:

  • Set ergo.wallet.dustLimit = 1000000 to disregard incoming payments (e.g., airdrops) of 0.001 ERG or less. Adjust as needed. The default null accounts for all incoming payments.
  • Set ergo.wallet.profile to exchange to enable larger Bloom filters for more efficient scanning with many addresses.
  • Set ergo.wallet.tokensWhitelist to a non-null value to automatically burn airdrop tokens and similar.

Combine these settings in your configuration:

  ergo {
    wallet {

      # boxes with value smaller than dustLimit are disregarded in wallet scan logic
      dustLimit = 1000000

      # Whitelisted tokens, if non-null, the wallet will automatically burn non-whitelisted tokens from
      # inputs when doing transactions.
      # If tokensWhitelist = [], all the tokens will be burnt,
      # tokensWhitelist = ["example"] means that all the tokens except of "example" will be burnt
      # tokensWhitelist = null means no tokens burnt automatically
      tokensWhitelist = [
        # SigUSD
        # SigRSV

      # Wallet profile allows to say wallet what kind of load it should expect,
      # and so spend memory on caches and Bloom filters accordingly.
      # There are three options: user, exchange, appServer
      # User profile is about ordinary planned usage.
      # Exchange consumes ~20 MB of RAM for high-load ready Bloom filters
      # AppServer is in between
      profile = "exchange"

Node Wallet#


Ergo node offers a REST API accessible via HTTP. The complete API specification, in OpenAPI format, can be found here. When the node is operational, access the user-friendly Swagger UI at or experiment with it here. An optional indexed node API is also available.

Major wallet functionalities include:

  • Wallet creation (/wallet/init) and mnemonic generation
  • Wallet restoration (/wallet/restore) from mnemonic
  • Wallet unlock (/wallet/unlock) for transaction signing
  • Wallet lock (/wallet/lock)
  • Sending a simple payment (/wallet/payment/send)
  • Checking wallet status (/wallet/status)
  • Deriving a new key according to EIP-3 (BIP 44 implementation for Ergo) (/wallet/deriveNextKey)
  • Checking wallet balance (/wallet/balances) for all addresses
  • Retrieving wallet transactions (/wallet/transactions) for all addresses
RPC Documentation#


The public explorer is available at Community-hosted alternatives include and

For more information, including additional details, toolkits, mirrors, and more, please visit the dedicated Explorer section.


GraphQL queries provide flexible data fetching, minimizing over-fetching and under-fetching. The GraphQL server, built on the Ergo Platform's explorer database schema, is accessible at

The most reliable instance is currently

Creating an External Wallet#

Develop your wallet logic externally using one of the available libraries and the block explorer.

Consider mempool transactions to avoid double-spending.

Available libraries:

Ergo's transactions, akin to Bitcoin, consist of multiple inputs and outputs. Unspent outputs, known as single-use entities, are used once. Although Ergo is built from the ground up, its scripts and transaction formats are distinct from Bitcoin's. For an in-depth understanding, refer to the Ergo 'Box' model.

Ergo incorporates standard scripts, associated with P2PK addresses, much like Bitcoin. An Ergo UTXO box utilizes registers to store arbitrary values, such as its native tokens, rather than a single amount (like BTC). Consequently, each box holds an ERG amount and may also include {tokenid, token amount} pairs, adhering to the UTXO model.

Offline Signing#

Address Generation#

Demo for secret seed and derived addresses generation using ergo-wallet and Java:

Use the /wallet/deriveNextKey API to generate new addresses in the same wallet:

curl -X GET "http://localhost:9053/wallet/deriveNextKey" -H  "accept: application/json" -H  "api_key: hello"

The output would be:

  "derivationPath": "m/44'/429'/0'/0/1",
  "address": "9gF9QP33MoPc8uekF95VHdosL4KzgSz7Ec7MLEtuhx4uPAd3eZs"

Derivation is done according to BIP-32.

Address Validation#

For exchanges, restrict withdrawals to P2PK addresses and invalidate other types. Supporting other types is not recommended. See address for more information on address types.

ergo-simple-addresses contains Java-friendly utils for working with addresses.

Composing Transactions Outside the Node#

Get unspent UTXOs for an address using the transactions/boxes/byAddress/unspent Explorer API method: 

Handling Unconfirmed UTXOs#

To avoid double-spending, it's important to handle unconfirmed UTXOs properly. There are two main approaches:

  1. Fetch unconfirmed transactions using the /transactions/unconfirmed/byErgoTree endpoint and exclude inputs from these transactions. You can convert an address to ergoTree using the ErgoAddress class in fleetSDK:
ErgoAddress.fromPublicKey(hex.decode(publicKey), Network.Mainnet).ergoTree;
  1. Download the whole mempool using the /transactions/unconfirmed endpoint and exclude unconfirmed UTXOs from your inputs.

Here's an example of fetching unconfirmed transactions by ergoTree:

curl -X POST "" -H "Content-Type: application/json" -d "\"00020006f03234fca83e0f00e7fe45e4bdb9db03008f279f599273b471bd85e22d8f1ef01\""

If the result is an empty array, there are no unconfirmed transactions for the given ergoTree.

Batch Withdrawals#

Processing user withdrawals in batches by gathering them in a script and pushing all outputs in one transaction can be beneficial. Here's a high-level overview of the process:

  1. When a user initiates a withdrawal, store the transaction details in your system.
  2. Every X minutes (e.g., 5-10 minutes), collect all pending withdrawals.
  3. Build a new transaction with multiple inputs (from your exchange's wallet) and outputs (to the users' withdrawal addresses).
  4. Sign and broadcast the batch transaction.

This approach can help optimize transaction processing and reduce overall fees. However, it may require adjustments to your existing code framework.

Broadcasting Transactions#

To broadcast a transaction made outside the node, serialize it into JSON. In Java:

Json json = JsonCodecsWrapper.ergoLikeTransactionEncoder().apply(tx);

Send this JSON via a POST request to the public Explorer:*

Or to your private Explorer or a node with open API (POST to http://{node_ip}:9053/transactions)


Determining Failed Transactions in UTXO Mode:#

Malformed transactions:

Simple transactions should produce an explicit error when signing and/or broadcasting such as:

Failed to sign boxes due to Estimated execution cost 1001580 exceeds the limit 1000000: Vector(ErgoBox(0275eb3a125bc02fe997cb98c0de8131bd9b2e4617110d

This error can occur due to too many inputs collected in a transaction for dusty wallets.

Valid RBF transactions: Dropped transactions will be removed from the mempool, this can be checked with the /transactions/unconfirmed/{txId} endpoint

Dust Collection#

Collect dust from miners' deposits periodically to prevent small UTXOs from accumulating.

Ergo's extended-UTXO model can lead to dust - fractional ERG values usually below the protocol fee. Miner wallets are prone to becoming dusty due to the stream of rewards. Excess UTXOs can slow down and impact node functionality. This is important for exchanges receiving mining traffic. Collect dust aggressively, as new dust arrives constantly for miners.

Node-specific settings to address this:

  • Get UTXOs from /wallet/boxes/unspent with min confirmations
  • Get their ids and total sum
  • Get binary representations of UTXOs via /utxo/byIdBinary/{boxId}

Construct the payment transaction:

  "requests": [
      "address": "3WwbzW6u8hKWBcL1W7kNVMr25s2UHfSBnYtwSHvrRQt7DdPuoXrt",
      "value": 10000000000
  "fee": 1000000,
  "inputsRaw": [
    "utxo1", "utxo2"
  "dataInputsRaw": [

Post to /wallet/transaction/send.

Set value and fee such that value + fee = total sum of UTXOs.

Query with specific parameters:

curl -X GET "" -H  "accept: application/json" -H  "api_key: hello"

Another simple way to collect dust is to set:

ergo {
 wallet {
   maxInputs = 300 
   optimalInputs = 100

And send 1 ERG to the change address. The node will attach 100 dust inputs (send any large change amounts to the change address as well).

Failed to sign boxes#

This error can occur due to too many inputs collected in a transaction for dusty wallets:

Failed to sign boxes due to Estimated execution cost 1001580 exceeds the limit 1000000: Vector(ErgoBox(0275eb3a125bc02fe997cb98c0de8131bd9b2e4617110d

Native Assets#

For large airdrops, users may mistakenly put exchange addresses to receive native assets. An auto-burn method will be in future node versions to reduce manual effort. See this Issue for more information.

Send this request via /wallet/payment/send, replacing tokenId with the IDs of the spamming tokens:

    "address": "4MQyMKvMbnCJG3aJ",
    "value": 100000000,
    "assets": [

There is no central token registry. Use community resources like supported tokens in the ergotipper bot and spectrum-finance/ergo-token-list.

Frequently Asked Questions#

Can P2S and P2SH be two address formats for the same script?

Yes. For P2S, the script is serialized directly into the address. For P2SH, the address contains only a hash of the serialized script.

Are there issues with supporting address types other than P2PK?

Supporting other types isn't a problem if the user is aware of what they're doing, but this is often not the case and can introduce complexity. P2S addresses can't validate input size in forms.

How are ergoTree and address related for conversions?

In appkit, Address.create() accepts an address string and returns an object from which you can obtain the ergoTree.

Transaction Fees

Ergo's transaction fee system is designed to be flexible and explicit. Although the protocol does not enforce a specific minimum transaction fee, it employs a spam-prevention strategy that requires each box to contain a minimum amount of ERG based on its size. This minimum value is determined by a parameter voted on by miners.

As a guideline, it is suggested to allocate 0.001 ERG (1,000,000 NanoErg) for each box involved in the transaction. Including a fee incentivizes miners to process your transaction more quickly.

Miners prioritize transactions based on either the fee per byte or the validation cost unit, which are adjustable via a voting mechanism among miners. Transaction fees are collected in a specific contract that can only be spent through a miner's script.

To determine the appropriate transaction fee, consider the protocol's minimum requirements based on the box size and the network's current hashrate. Higher hashrates reduce the risk of double-spend attacks, thus requiring fewer confirmations.

For more detailed information on transaction fees, including minimum values, miner prioritization, fee collection, and related topics, please refer to the dedicated Transaction Fees page.

What algorithm generates a boxid?

The boxid is generated by hashing the box contents.

See the code in AppKit for details

A box's bytes are unique because they contain: - The id of the parent transaction, - The output position in the transaction, - A unique transaction id.

Address Rules:

  • address = prefix byte || content bytes || checksum
  • Prefix byte = network type + address type
  • checksum = leftmost_4_bytes (blake2b256 (prefix byte || content bytes))
  • For more information, refer to the Address Types page.

Preventive Measures to Avoid Chain Forking:

Ergo's view is that disruptive hard forks should be avoided in Ergo unless absolutely critical. Ergo implements various measures to prevent hard forks, such as pushing complexity to the application layer and enabling many things to be implemented via soft-forks.

If a supermajority (90%+) of the network accepts a new feature, it is activated; however, old nodes that do not upgrade continue to operate normally and skip over this feature validation.

  • Velvet-Fork: Only requires a minority of nodes to upgrade. Introduced by the NiPoPoW paper, the key idea is that you can use the scheme even if only some blocks in the chain include the interlink structure and allows for "gradual deployment" without harming the miners that haven't upgraded to the new rules. In this way, it acts similar to a soft fork in that clients that upgrade to new rules are still compatible with those that don't.
  • Soft-fork: Requires some nodes to upgrade. The recent re-emission Soft-Fork EIP37 was possible as it's enforced on miner nodes only via protocol rules. These can be approved with 90% support from miners.
  • Hard-Fork: Requires all nodes to upgrade.

For more information, refer to the Ergo Improvement Proposals (EIPs).

51% Attack Prevention:

  • Ergo utilizes the Autolykos algorithm, a fairly launched efficient ASIC-resistant Proof of Work algorithm to mitigate the risk of a 51% attack. Mining pools offer a buffer against network attacks as the hash rate is distributed across thousands of individual miners. The memory-hardened aspect of Ergo also makes this attack vector more expensive as there is no ASIC support to rent.

Storage Rent:

  • Ergo's design emphasizes long-term economic sustainability. One of the key strategies to ensure this is the implementation of storage rent or 'demurrage'. Storage rent is a nominal fee levied on unspent outputs after four years. The fee per byte is determined by the storage rent subprotocol. For a box without tokens and complex scripts, this amounts to approximately 0.14 ERG every four years.
  • For more information, refer to the Storage Rent documentation.

Does the node wallet need to expose its port? If so, is a machine with NAT IP okay?

Wallet nodes do not necessarily need to expose their ports, although you can do if you want it to be available outside your local network. NAT IP is fine.

Whitelisting Node IP:

Ergo does not require adding your node's IP to a whitelist for synchronization.

Frequently Asked Questions#

What is the difference between the value field and assets array in a box? Each box always has an ERG value in the value field. Assets are optional and are represented in the assets array. A box can contain a combination of ERG and tokens.

What is the difference between inclusionHeight and creationHeight? Creation height is when the transaction was built, but it's not reliable since the person building the transaction can input a number <= current block height. Inclusion height is the block number where the transaction was first included (first confirmation).

How can I get the block number of the first transaction confirmation? Call /blocks/{blockId}/header to get the block height. The height in the header defines the block number in which the transactions from that block received their first confirmation.

Is the numConfirmations value returned by /blockchain/transaction/byId/{txId} the number of transaction confirmations? Yes, it is.

What is considered a safe number of confirmations? A common practice is to use 10 confirmations for deposits, which takes about 20 minutes. Ergo doesn't have many forking events due to the relatively long block time.

What's the difference between /wallet/balances and /wallet/balances/withUnconfirmed endpoints? /balances returns the balance excluding current unconfirmed transactions in the mempool. /balances/withUnconfirmed accounts for transactions in the mempool, returning the confirmed balance plus (or minus) unconfirmed transactions.

Which endpoint should be used to get the balance before sending a transaction? When working with chained transactions, it's better to use /balances/withUnconfirmed to get the balance before sending a transaction, as it reflects the "new wallet balance" after sending the previous transaction.