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Ergo Modifiers#


Unlike most blockchain systems, an Ergo block consists of four parts:

  • Header is the minimum required to synchronise the chain and check PoW correctness. It also contains hashes of other sections.
  • BlockTransactions is a sequence of transactions included in this block.
  • ADProofs are proofs for transactions included in the corresponding BlockTransactions section of a block. Allows light clients to verify all the transactions and calculate new root hash.
  • Extension stores additional data that does not correspond to previous sections. It contains interlinks and current parameters of the chain (when an extension belongs to a block at the end of the voting epoch).
Field Size Description
version 1 block version, to be increased on every soft- and hardfork
parentId 32 id of parent block
ADProofsRoot 32 hash of ADProofs for transactions in a block
stateRoot 32 root hash (for an AVL+ tree) of a state after block application
transactionsRoot 32 root hash (for a Merkle tree) of transactions in a block
timestamp 8 block timestamp(in milliseconds since beginning of Unix Epoch)
nBits 8 current difficulty in a compressed form
height 4 block height
extensionRoot 32 root hash of extension section
powSolution 75-107 solution of Autolykos PoW puzzle
votes 3 votes for changes in system parameteres, one byte per vote

Some of these fields may be calculated by the node by itself if it is in a certain mode:

  • parentId: if(status==bootstrap AND PoPoWBootstrap == false).
  • ADProofsRoot: if(status==regular AND ADState==false AND BlocksToKeep>0).
  • stateRoot: if(status==regular AND ADState==false AND BlocksToKeep>0).


Extension is a key-value storage for a variety of data.

A key is always 2-bytes long, maximum size of a value is 64 bytes. Extension could be no more than of \(16,384\) bytes.

Some keys have predefined semantics. In particular, if the first byte of a key equals to \(0x00\), then the second byte defines parameter identifier, and the value defines value of the parameter. See Section~\ref{sec:params-table for details. Another predefined key is used for storing interlinks vector - the first byte of the key is \(0x01\), the second one corresponds to index of the link in the vector and the value contains actual link (32 bytes) prefixed with the number of times it appears in the vector (1 byte). Other prefixes may be used freely.